Healthy inmune system

Inmune system support

apoyo sistema inmune

With natural antioxidants from peas and with a high content of Taurine and Vitamin E to support the immune system.

What are antioxidants?

Antioxidants are different types of substances which have the function of counteracting the negative effects of cellular oxidation. Some are generated by the body itself while others are external, of diverse origins, and it is necessary to consume them for them to work. Recently, there have been many discussions about antioxidants, Free Radicals (FR), and their relationship with aging and the appearance of several degenerative diseases, especially in the Geriatrics age group. We must remember that this life stage begins around the 8 to 10 years of age of, in our pets.

What is oxidative metabolism?

The cells in the body need oxygen to fulfil their specific tasks. The set of chemical reactions that occur between different substances and oxygen is known as oxidative metabolism.

What alterations does oxidative metabolism cause?

Free radicals (fr) are oxygen metabolism residues inside the cells. In some cases, fr formation is part of the body’s defensive strategy but its production and destruction must be highly controlled, as its excess is extremely harmful to the body. This chain of chemical reactions with oxygen leads to the formation of toxic waste called fr.

Fr are also created by external body sources, such as physical exercise, environmental pollution, sunlight, and some medications.

How do free radicals act?

Fr oxidise cellular structures such as cell membranes (unsaturated fatty acids), some enzyme systems, and the dna of the different portions of the cell (mitochondria and nucleus). This process where proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids are affected is called oxidative stress.

The affected structures result in or contribute to the emergence of various chronic diseases that complicate as we age. For example, there are alterations that are carcinogenic, cardiac, neurological, and pulmonary (tissues with a lot of oxygen consumption). It has also been found that it affects diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, asthma, the immune system, and joints. And, in general, they contribute to aging processes in patients with alterations in all body systems.

Antioxidant defences of the body:

The body has some natural defences against this oxidative process produced by fr: antioxidant enzymes found in the tissues such as the superoxide -dismutase (sod), catalase (cat), and glutathione peroxidase (gsh-px). These substances act jointly with some minerals that are provided by the diet. There should be a balance between fr production and antioxidants production. When these are outweighed by fr, oxidative effects are accelerated and, therefore, the aging process.

Antioxidant defences by nutrients:

There is a group of nutrients that act as secondary antioxidants trapping fr. These nutrients are ingested with food. In general, there are differences between the minimum value required to not produce alterations by deprivation and level with antioxidant function, which is higher. Some of the most important substances are:

Vit. E (alpha tocopherol): present in vegetable oils and animal fats. There is a minimum intake value below which alterations are produced due to a deficiency in fatty tissue and the immune system. The use as an antioxidant is 2 to 3 times the minimum value and acts to protect the phospholipids in cell membranes. There are studies that show that the use of vit. E improves the immune response to vaccination in young dogs and cats.

Vit. C (ascorbic acid): present in citrus fruits, tomatoes, and green vegetables. Dogs and cats produce it in their bodies in quantities acceptable to their metabolic function (there may be deficits in stress situations or infectious processes) but insufficient as an antioxidant. It is being used as an oxidative stress protector in diabetes mellitus.

Beta carotene (provitamin a): present in carrots, sweet potatoes, and cabbage. Remember that beta carotene cannot be transformed into vit a in cats, as they don’t have the necessary enzymes, thus, beta carotene only has an antioxidant effect in this species. It is important to activate the immune system and the reduction of certain types of cancers in some animals. Prevents some skin cancers caused by uv radiation and, along with vit e, it protects against lung cancer.

Taurine (amino acid): it is an essential amino acid for cats, meaning that it must be provided by the diet. Its deficiency causes alterations in the eyes and the heart. The antioxidant level acts in the primary and secondary phase in cellular membranes stabilisation.

Trace elements: such as selenium, copper, manganese, and zinc. These minerals are part of the antioxidant enzymes structure. Without them, enzymes would not work, their presence is therefore fundamental in the antioxidant process.

Oligoelementos: como el Selenio, Cobre, Manganeso y Zinc, son minerales que forman parte de la estructura de enzimas antioxidantes, sin ellos las enzimas no funcinarían, por lo que su presencia es fundamental en el proceso antioxidante.

Nutrient/ Ingredient Main function in immunity

Vitamins

Vitamin C Helps maintain the immune barrier; important in phagocytes function; key in the synthesis of collagen
Vitamin A Required for the proper functioning of phagocytes and the activation of T and B lymphocytes
Vitamin E Improves the barrier function
Vitamin D Regulates the immune response; activates a bacterial attack with macrophages and barrier cells
Vitamin B1 Improves the barrier function
Vitamin B6 Essential for immune cells growth and function
Vitamin B9, folic acid Essential for immune cells growth and function
Vitamin B12 Essential for immune cells growth and function

Carotenes

Beta carotene Stimulates the immune response

Nutritional Lipids

DHA omega-3 Important in the initial development of the immune system of puppies

Minerals

 Zinc Its deficiency reduces lymphocytes production
Selenium Its deficiency reduces antibodies production
Copper Its deficiency reduces the adaptive immune response
Iron A cofactor in enzymes related to the immune system

Nutraceuticals

 Taurine Stabilises membranes